ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART PDF

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INTRODUCTION. The heart is a muscular pump that serves two functions: (1) From: Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices. Edited by: P. A. PDF | The impact of anatomy on medicine was first recognised by Andreas Vesalius during the 16th century [1] and from birth to death, the heart is the most. Atria: The upper chambers of the heart; they receive blood returning to the . The venules. CHAPTER 5 Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System.


Anatomy And Physiology Of The Heart Pdf

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The human cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, the blood it pumps, and the blood vessels, veins and arteries, Print Friendly, PDF & Email . Saladin, K. Anatomy & physiology: the unity of form and function. heart anatomy and ritipulmama.cf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices, as well as other educational programs. More specifically, it was through my collaborations with Tim. Laske, Mark.

The pulmonary veins take blood from the lungs to the left atrium. These two large veins then take the blood from the rest of the body into the right atrium.

Valves Valves are fibrous flaps of tissue found between the heart chambers and in the blood vessels. They are rather like gates which prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction. They are found in a number of places. Valves between the atria and ventricles are known as the right and left atrioventricular valves , otherwise known as the tricuspid and mitral valves respectively.

Valves between the ventricles and the great arteries are known as the semilunar valves.

The aortic valve is found at the base of the aorta, while the pulmonary valve is found the base of the pulmonary trunk. There are also many valves found in veins throughout the body.

However, there are no valves found in any of the other arteries besides the aorta and pulmonary trunk.

What is the Cardiovascular System? The cardiovascular system refers to the heart, blood vessels and the blood.

Blood contains oxygen and other nutrients which your body needs to survive.

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The body takes these essential nutrients from the blood. At the same time, the body dumps waste products like carbon dioxide, back into the blood, so they can be removed. The main function of the cardiovascular system is therefore to maintain blood flow to all parts of the body, to allow it to survive. Veins deliver used blood from the body back to the heart. Blood in the veins is low in oxygen as it has been taken out by the body and high in carbon dioxide as the body has unloaded it back into the blood.

All the veins drain into the superior and inferior vena cava which then drain into the right atrium. The right atrium pumps blood into the right ventricle. Then the right ventricle pumps blood to the pulmonary trunk, through the pulmonary arteries and into the lungs.

In the lungs the blood picks up oxygen that we breathe in and gets rid of carbon dioxide, which we breathe out.

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The blood is becomes rich in oxygen which the body can use. From the lungs, blood drains into the left atrium and is then pumped into the left ventricle. The left ventricle then pumps this oxygen-rich blood out into the aorta which then distributes it to the rest of the body through other arteries.

The main arteries which branch off the aorta and take blood to specific parts of the body are: Carotid arteries , which take blood to the neck and head Coronary arteries , which provide blood supply to the heart itself Hepatic artery , which takes blood to the liver with branches going to the stomach Mesenteric artery , which takes blood to the intestines Renal arteries , which takes blood to the kidneys Femoral arteries , which take blood to the legs The body is then able to use the oxygen in the blood to carry out its normal functions.

This blood will again return back to the heart through the veins and the cycle continues. Book your health appointments online Find and instantly book your next health appointment with HealthEngine Find health practitioners What is the Cardiac Cycle? The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occurs in one complete beat of the heart.

The pumping phase of the cycle, also known as systole , occurs when heart muscle contracts. The filling phase, which is known as diastole , occurs when heart muscle relaxes. At the beginning of the cardiac cycle, both atria and ventricles are in diastole. During this time, all the chambers of the heart are relaxed and receive blood. The atrioventricular valves are open. Atrial systole follows this phase. During atrial systole, the left and right atria contract at the same time and push blood into the left and right ventricles, respectively.

The next phase is ventricular systole.

During ventricular systole, the left and right ventricles contract at the same time and pump blood into the aorta and pulmonary trunk, respectively.

In ventricular systole, the atria are relaxed and receive blood.

The atrioventricular valves close immediately after ventricular systole begins to stop blood going back into the atria. However, the semilunar valves are open during this phase to allow the blood to flow into the aorta and pulmonary trunk. The semilunar valves close to stop the blood from flowing back into the ventricles from the aorta and pulmonary trunk. The atria and ventricles once again are in diastole together and the cycle begins again.

Components of the Heartbeat The adult heart beats around 70 to 80 times a minute at rest. When you listen to your heart with a stethoscope you can hear your heart beat. Abnormal heart sounds are known as murmurs. Murmurs may indicate a problem with the heart valves, but many types of murmur are no cause for concern.

For more information see: see Valvular Heart Disease The Electrocardiogram The heart has an inbuilt rhythm of contraction and relaxation.

Handbook of cardiac anatomy, physiology, and devices

A small group of heart muscle cells called the pacemaker help achieve this. The pacemaker generates an electrical impulse which spreads over the atria, making them contract. The left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta which then carries it to the rest of the body through smaller arteries. The pulmonary trunk is the large artery which the right ventricle pumps into. It splits into pulmonary arteries which take the blood to the lungs.

The pulmonary veins take blood from the lungs to the left atrium. These two large veins then take the blood from the rest of the body into the right atrium. Valves are fibrous flaps of tissue found between the heart chambers and in the blood vessels. They are rather like gates which prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction. They are found in a number of places.

Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices

Valves between the atria and ventricles are known as the right and left atrioventricular valves , otherwise known as the tricuspid and mitral valves respectively. Valves between the ventricles and the great arteries are known as the semilunar valves. The aortic valve is found at the base of the aorta, while the pulmonary valve is found the base of the pulmonary trunk. There are also many valves found in veins throughout the body. However, there are no valves found in any of the other arteries besides the aorta and pulmonary trunk.

The cardiovascular system refers to the heart, blood vessels and the blood. Blood contains oxygen and other nutrients which your body needs to survive. The body takes these essential nutrients from the blood.

At the same time, the body dumps waste products like carbon dioxide, back into the blood, so they can be removed. The main function of the cardiovascular system is therefore to maintain blood flow to all parts of the body, to allow it to survive.

Veins deliver used blood from the body back to the heart. Blood in the veins is low in oxygen as it has been taken out by the body and high in carbon dioxide as the body has unloaded it back into the blood. All the veins drain into the superior and inferior vena cava which then drain into the right atrium. The right atrium pumps blood into the right ventricle. Then the right ventricle pumps blood to the pulmonary trunk, through the pulmonary arteries and into the lungs.

In the lungs the blood picks up oxygen that we breathe in and gets rid of carbon dioxide, which we breathe out. The blood is becomes rich in oxygen which the body can use.

From the lungs, blood drains into the left atrium and is then pumped into the left ventricle. The left ventricle then pumps this oxygen-rich blood out into the aorta which then distributes it to the rest of the body through other arteries.

The main arteries which branch off the aorta and take blood to specific parts of the body are:.

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The body is then able to use the oxygen in the blood to carry out its normal functions. This blood will again return back to the heart through the veins and the cycle continues. The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occurs in one complete beat of the heart. The pumping phase of the cycle, also known as systole , occurs when heart muscle contracts.

The filling phase, which is known as diastole , occurs when heart muscle relaxes. At the beginning of the cardiac cycle, both atria and ventricles are in diastole. During this time, all the chambers of the heart are relaxed and receive blood. The atrioventricular valves are open. Atrial systole follows this phase. During atrial systole, the left and right atria contract at the same time and push blood into the left and right ventricles, respectively. The next phase is ventricular systole.

During ventricular systole, the left and right ventricles contract at the same time and pump blood into the aorta and pulmonary trunk, respectively.

In ventricular systole, the atria are relaxed and receive blood. The atrioventricular valves close immediately after ventricular systole begins to stop blood going back into the atria. However, the semilunar valves are open during this phase to allow the blood to flow into the aorta and pulmonary trunk. The semilunar valves close to stop the blood from flowing back into the ventricles from the aorta and pulmonary trunk. The atria and ventricles once again are in diastole together and the cycle begins again.

The adult heart beats around 70 to 80 times a minute at rest. When you listen to your heart with a stethoscope you can hear your heart beat. Abnormal heart sounds are known as murmurs. Murmurs may indicate a problem with the heart valves, but many types of murmur are no cause for concern. For more information see: The heart has an inbuilt rhythm of contraction and relaxation.

A small group of heart muscle cells called the pacemaker help achieve this. The pacemaker generates an electrical impulse which spreads over the atria, making them contract. This impulse then spreads to the ventricles, causing them to contract.

The electrical changes that spread through the heart can be detected at the surface of the body by an instrument called the electrocardiograph.Capillaries form extensive branching networks that dramatically increase the surface areas available for the rapid exchange of molecules. As with all systemic circulatory vascular beds, the aortic or arterial pressure perfusion pressure is vital for driving blood through the coronaries and thus needs to be considered another important determinant of coronary flow.

This places the chambers and major vessels into the correct alignment for the developed heart. The lymphatic system is unidirectional, with fluid flowing from interstitial space back to the general circulatory system.

As a result of the filling, increased pressure in the ventricles increases the stretching of the cardiac muscle fibres. The vagus nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system acts to decrease the heart rate, and nerves from the sympathetic trunk act to increase the heart rate.

It can be easily measured by centrifuging spinning at high speed a sample of blood, which forces these cells to the bottom of the centrifuge tube. Thank you.

There are also many valves found in veins throughout the body.

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