ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PDF

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PDF | Electronic commerce is a relatively new concept that crept into the business vocabulary during the s. A picture of electronic. Electronic commerce. J. Ohene-Djan. CO Undergraduate study in. Computing and related programmes. This is an extract from a subject guide for an. Abstract: Recent developments in the fields of Internet and Information Technology have led to renewed interest extraordinary in electronic commerce.


Electronic Commerce Pdf

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Introduction to E-Commerce: Combining Business and Information Technology . PDF. Portable Document Format. PDM. Product Data Management. PKCS. INTRODUCTİON TO E-COMMERCE. E-commerce is downloading and selling goods and services over the Internet. E- commerce is part of e-business as specified. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy .

You should be able to find a merchant account provider that can offer you discount credit cards rates ranging from 1. If not, contact Intellisoft regarding our merchant account provider affiliates and the free Intellicharge Interface just for signing up with them.

E-commerce

You will need a dedicated phone line or data line for processing credit cards and electronic checks. Note: If your computer or local area network is already connected to the internet, a separate data line will not be necessary if you use the Intellicharge Interface for electronic payment. Web Hosting Web hosting is a very important step in this process, as this is how you gain a presence on the internet in the first place. There are actually two scenarios that can be used for web hosting.

Scenario1 involves setting up and maintaining your own web server, while Scenario 2 involves farming out all web hosting administration to an ISP. An Internet Service Provider ISP is a company that provides you with internet access and limited hard drive space on their web servers for hosting your web site. The following should be noted when searching for an Internet Service Provider: Always try to find an ISP that can provide a local telephone number for you to connect to the internet.

Choose an ISP that is known for having few interruptions of service. Choose an ISP that is known for good technical support and has knowledgeable people familiar with ecommerce sites. Choose an ISP that consistently has fast connection speeds. As with any company you do business with, make sure the ISP is reputable. The online transaction providers that offer the actual web store itself can sometimes be hosted by your same ISP or may require a completely different provider, referred to as a Commerce Service Provider CSP.

Online transaction providers will usually provide one shopping cart solution they feel is better than the many others that exist and differ by price, appearance, layout, functionality, and ease of use. The following should be noted when dealing with shopping cart applications: Online transaction providers will either sell or rent you the use of an online shopping cart application for your business.

Be forewarned that downloading an online shopping cart application is very expensive. Most businesses will rent these online web store programs rather than committing to such a steep investment. Rental pricing for the use of shopping cart programs vary depending on number of transactions generated a month, number of products listed on the shopping cart application, and the sophistication of the shopping cart application itself. There are a lot of online transaction providers out there, and they all have varying packages.

However, when adding a web store to your web site, you may want to seek the help of professional web designers to make the look and feel of your web store consistent with the rest of your corporate web site. Most shopping cart applications, like SoftCart by Mercantec, allow its templates to be modified just for this purpose.

Registering a Domain Name Domain names are the names for computers on the Internet that correspond to IP Internet protocol numbers to route information to addresses on the Internet network. Domain names serve as a convenient way of locating information and people on the Internet. Your domain name says who you are to your clients, your peers - the whole world. The basics for registering a domain name are: Contact a domain name registrar on the internet to register for a domain name. Select a unique domain name you would like others to use for finding your web site.

SSL protects communications so you can take credit card orders securely and ensure that hackers cannot eavesdrop on you. Any ecommerce company that provides you with an online web store will require you to have SSL before you can use their services.

Thankfully, for most people obtaining a digital certificate is not a problem. For a minimal fee, one can usually use the certificate owned by the web hosting company where your page resides. If you are a larger company, however, you may want to get your own digital certificate. It is important to understand that the aim of the architectural frame-work itself is not to build new database management systems, data repository, computer languages, software agent based transaction monitors, or communication protocols.

Rather, the architecture should focus on synthesizing the diverse resources already in place in corporations to facilitate the integration of data and software for better applications. As seen in Fig.

But only when they are integrated do they provide uniquely powerful solutions. In the ensuing discussion of each of these layers, we will not elaborate on the various aspects of the network infrastructure that transports information. These were discussed extensively earlier and will not be addressed here.

We begin our discussion with the application level services. Table Electronic Commerce: A conceptual framework Electronic Commerce Application Services The application services layer of e-commerce will be comprised of existing and future applications built on the innate architecture. Three distinct classes of electronic commerce application can be distinguished: customer to business, business-to-business, and intra organization Consumer-to-Business Transactions We call this category marketplace transaction.

In a marketplace transaction, customers learn about products differently through electronic publishing, download them differently using electronic cash and secure payment systems, and have them delivered differently.

Also, how customers allocate their loyalty may also be different. Small companies are also beginning to see the benefits of adopting the same methods. Business-to-business transactions include the use of EDI and electronic mail for downloading goods and services,downloading information and consulting services, submitting requests for proposals, and receiving proposals.

Examine this scenario. The current accounts payable process occurs through the exchange of paper documents. Each year the trading partners exchange millions of invoices, checks, download orders, financial reports, and other transactions. Most of the documents are in electronic form at their point of origin but are printed and key-entered at the point of receipt.

The current manual process of printing, mailing is costly, time consuming, and error-prone. Given this situation and faced with the need to reduce costs, small businesses are looking toward electronic commerce as a possible savior. Intra-organizational Transactions We call this category market-driven transactions. A company becomes market driven by dispersing throughout the firm information about its customers and competitors; by spreading strategic and tactical decision making so that all units can participate; and by continuously monitoring their customer commitment by making improved customer satisfaction an ongoing objective.

To maintain the relationships that are critical to delivering superior customer value, management must pay close attention to service, both before and after sales. Three major components of market-driven transactions are customer orientation through product and service customization; cross-functional coordination through enterprise integration; and advertising, marketing, and customer service.

Information Brokerage and Management The information brokerage and management layer provides service integration through the notion of information brokerages, the development of which is necessitated by the increasing information resource fragmentation. We use the notion of information brokerage to represent an intermediary who provides service integration between customers and information providers, given some constraint such as a low price, fast service, or profit maximization for a client.

Information brokers, for example, are rapidly becoming necessary in dealing with the voluminous amounts of information on the networks. As on-line databases migrate to consumer information utilities, consumers and information professionals will have to keep up with the knowledge, and owner-ship of all these systems. In , retail e-commerce sales worldwide amounted to 2. Brick and mortar retailers are struggling because of online retailer's ability to offer lower prices and higher efficiency.

Many larger retailers are able to maintain a presence offline and online by linking physical and online offerings. Online and traditional markets have different strategies for conducting business. Traditional retailers offer fewer assortment of products because of shelf space where, online retailers often hold no inventory but send customer orders directly to the manufacture. The pricing strategies are also different for traditional and online retailers.

Traditional retailers base their prices on store traffic and the cost to keep inventory. Online retailers base prices on the speed of delivery.

There are two ways for marketers to conduct business through e-commerce: fully online or online along with a brick and mortar store. Online marketers can offer lower prices, greater product selection, and high efficiency rates. Many customers prefer online markets if the products can be delivered quickly at relatively low price.

However, online retailers cannot offer the physical experience that traditional retailers can. It can be difficult to judge the quality of a product without the physical experience, which may cause customers to experience product or seller uncertainty.

Another issue regarding the online market is concerns about the security of online transactions. Many customers remain loyal to well-known retailers because of this issue. E-commerce security is protecting business' websites and costumers from unauthorized access, use, alteration, or destruction. The type of threats include: malicious codes, unwanted programs ad ware , spyware , phishing , hacking , and cyber vandalism.

E-commerce websites use different tools to avert security threats. These tools include firewalls , encryption software , digital certificates, and passwords. However, the emergence of e-commerce has provided a more practical and effective way of delivering the benefits of the new supply chain technologies.

The affections on physical flows improved the way of product and inventory movement level for companies. For the information flows, e-commerce optimised the capacity of information processing than companies used to have, and for the financial flows, e-commerce allows companies to have more efficient payment and settlement solutions.

Yet these new capabilities are still not fully exploited. Thirdly, technology companies would keep investing on new e-commerce software solutions as they are expecting investment return. Fourthly, e-commerce would help to solve many aspects of issues that companies may feel difficult to cope with, such as political barriers or cross-country changes. Finally, e-commerce provides companies a more efficient and effective way to collaborate with each other within the supply chain.

It also causes job losses. The areas with the greatest predicted job-loss are retail, postal, and travel agencies. The development of e-commerce will create jobs that require highly skilled workers to manage large amounts of information, customer demands, and production processes. In contrast, people with poor technical skills cannot enjoy the wages welfare. On the other hand, because e-commerce requires sufficient stocks that could be delivered to customers in time, the warehouse becomes an important element.

Warehouse needs more staff to manage, supervise and organize, thus the condition of warehouse environment will be concerned by employees.

Consumers also gain power through online shopping.

Introduction of E Commerce Project

They are able to research products and compare prices among retailers. Also, online shopping often provides sales promotion or discounts code, thus it is more price effective for customers.

Customers can also review and track the order history online. The PSRs created a new class of regulated firms known as payment institutions PIs , who are subject to prudential requirements.

In India , the Information Technology Act governs the basic applicability of e-commerce. In China , the Telecommunications Regulations of the People's Republic of China promulgated on 25 September , stipulated the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology MIIT as the government department regulating all telecommunications related activities, including electronic commerce. It is considered the first law in China's e-commerce legislation. It was a milestone in the course of improving China's electronic commerce legislation, and also marks the entering of China's rapid development stage for electronic commerce legislation.

Contemporary electronic commerce can be classified into two categories. The first category is business based on types of goods sold involves everything from ordering "digital" content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to "meta" services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce.

On the institutional level, big corporations and financial institutions use the internet to exchange financial data to facilitate domestic and international business. Data integrity and security are pressing issues for electronic commerce. Aside from traditional e-commerce, the terms m-Commerce mobile commerce as well around t-Commerce [39] have also been used. In , the United Kingdom had the highest per capita e-commerce spending in the world.

Among emerging economies, China's e-commerce presence continues to expand every year. Recent research clearly indicates that electronic commerce, commonly referred to as e-commerce, presently shapes the manner in which people shop for products. The GCC countries have a rapidly growing market and are characterized by a population that becomes wealthier Yuldashev.

As such, retailers have launched Arabic-language websites as a means to target this population. Secondly, there are predictions of increased mobile downloads and an expanding internet audience Yuldashev. The growth and development of the two aspects make the GCC countries to become larger players in the electronic commerce market with time progress. The e-commerce market has also gained much popularity among the western countries, and in particular Europe and the U.

These countries have been highly characterized with consumer-packaged-goods CPG Geisler, However, trends show that there are future signs of a reverse.

Similar to the GCC countries, there has been increased download of goods and services in online channels rather than offline channels. Activist investors are trying hard to consolidate and slash their overall cost and the governments in western countries continue to impose more regulation on CPG manufacturers Geisler, In these senses, CPG investors are being forced to adapt e-commerce as it is effective as a well as a means for them to thrive.

In , Brazil's e-commerce was growing quickly with retail e-commerce sales expected to grow at a double-digit pace through The future trends in the GCC countries will be similar with that of the western countries. Despite the forces that push business to adapt e-commerce as a means to sell goods and products, the manner in which customers make downloads is similar in countries from these two regions. For instance, there has been an increased usage of smartphones which comes in conjunction with an increase in the overall internet audience from the regions.

Yuldashev writes that consumers are scaling up to more modern technology that allows for mobile marketing. However, the percentage of smartphone and internet users who make online downloads is expected to vary in the first few years. It will be independent on the willingness of the people to adopt this new trend The Statistics Portal. For example, UAE has the greatest smartphone penetration of On the other hand, smartphone penetration in Europe has been reported to be at Regardless, the disparity in percentage between these regions is expected to level out in future because e-commerce technology is expected to grow allowing for more users.

The e-commerce business within these two regions will result in a competition. Government bodies at country level will enhance their measures and strategies to ensure sustainability and consumer protection Krings, et al.

These increased measures will raise the environmental and social standards in the countries, factors that will determine the success of e-commerce market in these countries. For example, an adoption of tough sanctions will make it difficult for companies to enter the e-commerce market while lenient sanctions will allow ease of companies.

As such, the future trends between GCC countries and the Western countries will be independent of these sanctions Krings, et al. These countries need to make rational conclusions in coming up with effective sanctions. The rate of growth of the number of internet users in the Arab countries has been rapid — A significant portion of the e-commerce market in the Middle East comprises people in the 30—34 year age group. Yet, internet penetration is low: E-commerce has become an important tool for small and large businesses worldwide, not only to sell to customers, but also to engage them.

Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in the mix of e-commerce, this is also commonly called mobile commerce, or m-commerce. For traditional businesses, one research stated that information technology and cross-border e-commerce is a good opportunity for the rapid development and growth of enterprises.

Many companies have invested enormous volume of investment in mobile applications. Modern 3D graphics technologies, such as Facebook 3D Posts , are considered by some social media marketers and advertisers as a more preferable way to promote consumer goods than static photos, and some brands like Sony are already paving the way for augmented reality commerce.

Wayfair now lets you inspect a 3D version of its furniture in a home setting before downloading. Logistics in e-commerce mainly concerns fulfillment. Online markets and retailers have to find the best possible way to fill orders and deliver products. Small companies usually control their own logistic operation because they do not have the ability to hire an outside company. Most large companies hire a fulfillment service that takes care of a company's logistic needs.

Contrary to common misconception , there are significant barriers to entry in e-commerce. E-commerce markets are growing at noticeable rates. In , retail e-commerce sales worldwide amounted to 2. Brick and mortar retailers are struggling because of online retailer's ability to offer lower prices and higher efficiency.

E-Commerce Tutorial in PDF

Many larger retailers are able to maintain a presence offline and online by linking physical and online offerings. E-commerce allows customers to overcome geographical barriers and allows them to download products anytime and from anywhere.

Online and traditional markets have different strategies for conducting business. Traditional retailers offer fewer assortment of products because of shelf space where, online retailers often hold no inventory but send customer orders directly to the manufacture. The pricing strategies are also different for traditional and online retailers.

Traditional retailers base their prices on store traffic and the cost to keep inventory. Online retailers base prices on the speed of delivery. There are two ways for marketers to conduct business through e-commerce: Online marketers can offer lower prices, greater product selection, and high efficiency rates. Many customers prefer online markets if the products can be delivered quickly at relatively low price.

However, online retailers cannot offer the physical experience that traditional retailers can.

It can be difficult to judge the quality of a product without the physical experience, which may cause customers to experience product or seller uncertainty. Another issue regarding the online market is concerns about the security of online transactions.

Many customers remain loyal to well-known retailers because of this issue. Security is a primary problem for e-commerce in developed and developing countries. E-commerce security is protecting business' websites and costumers from unauthorized access, use, alteration, or destruction. The type of threats include: E-commerce websites use different tools to avert security threats.

These tools include firewalls , encryption software , digital certificates, and passwords. For a long time, companies had been troubled by the gap between the benefits which supply chain technology has and the solutions to deliver those benefits.

However, the emergence of e-commerce has provided a more practical and effective way of delivering the benefits of the new supply chain technologies. E-commerce has the capability to integrate all inter-company and intra-company functions, meaning that the three flows physical flow, financial flow and information flow of the supply chain could be also affected by e-commerce.

The affections on physical flows improved the way of product and inventory movement level for companies. For the information flows, e-commerce optimised the capacity of information processing than companies used to have, and for the financial flows, e-commerce allows companies to have more efficient payment and settlement solutions. In addition, e-commerce has a more sophisticated level of impact on supply chains: Firstly, the performance gap will be eliminated since companies can identify gaps between different levels of supply chains by electronic means of solutions; Secondly, as a result of e-commerce emergence, new capabilities such implementing ERP systems, like SAP ERP , Xero , or Megaventory , have helped companies to manage operations with customers and suppliers.

Yet these new capabilities are still not fully exploited. Thirdly, technology companies would keep investing on new e-commerce software solutions as they are expecting investment return. Fourthly, e-commerce would help to solve many aspects of issues that companies may feel difficult to cope with, such as political barriers or cross-country changes.

Finally, e-commerce provides companies a more efficient and effective way to collaborate with each other within the supply chain.Or, the number was wrong,but he forgot to let you know. The development of e-commerce will create jobs that require highly skilled workers to manage large amounts of information, customer demands, and production processes. Businesses can supply these electronically.

Different packaging services. The primary difference between the two is that unlike interactive catalogs, which deal with people, directory support services interact directly with soft-ware applications. Faster downloading for customers. In contrast, people with poor technical skills cannot enjoy the wages welfare. Easy to use features: Simple navigation tools, easy checkout flows, etc.

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